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21-第21章 抗核抗体:系统性有身免疫病的诊断和预后评价指标

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 楼主| 发表于 2008-12-16 13:53:42 | 显示全部楼层
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21-10-第十节 抗核抗体的致病机制

关于自身抗体的产生是如何启动的尚知之甚少,对此有多种可能的解释,可能是多种机制共同作用的结果。其中三种较为普遍的假说是分子模拟、自身抗原改变以及在细胞凋亡过程中产生抗原递呈。   
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      1.分子模拟  , v- e* a1 B; u- N$ S7 c) y

& `8 {. S. R; E      自身抗原与非己抗原的免疫性交叉反应称为“分子模拟”,结果可能产生自身反应性的B细胞或T细胞。例如,在逆转录病毒p30gag蛋白和U1 snRNP的U1-70K组分之间可以发生免疫性交叉反应。能够识别磷酰胺酸或其他常见的翻译后修饰成分的自身抗体也已有报道,这也许能够解释在硬皮病中抗磷酸化RNA聚合酶II的自身抗体与抗磷蛋白拓扑异构酶Ⅰ(Sel-70 )的自身抗体之间有很强的相关性。但是,分子模拟在自身免疫病发病机制中的重要性尚存在一些疑问,有待于进一步完善。   
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! x, ^0 @) w9 Q      2.改变的自身(altered self)    " R7 p& b2 W* b

6 {( I- s% U$ \4 ^5 m      对自身抗原的耐受是不完全的,用通常不被抗原递呈细胞所递呈的隐蔽自身肽段免疫动物,能引发抗自身T细胞的应答。自身蛋白与异抗原的结合也可诱发自身免疫反应。例如,用p53与猿病毒40 (SV40)的大T抗原形成的复合物免疫小鼠,可获得抗p53抑癌蛋白的自身抗体。大T抗原与自身p53的结合可能改变抗原递呈细胞对其处理过程,导致隐蔽的自身肽段的递呈。“隐蔽的抗原表位”假说对于自身免疫病来说可能意义比较广泛,因为它们可通过多种途径发生自身改变,包括自身蛋白与金属离子或药物结合、自身蛋白的异常降解、通过体细胞突变而发生蛋白结构改变等,后者与肿瘤性疾病相关的自身抗体产生有相似之处。   
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      3.细胞凋亡   
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被狼疮或硬皮病自身抗体识别的多种抗原分子于凋亡泡中,被白细胞介素1β转化酶样的蛋白酶降解。它们的裂解可能产生具有免疫原性的抗原。既然细胞凋亡是正常的程序,那么可以设想,要么是蛋白分解过程的异常,要么是凋亡物质清除的延缓,从而诱发自身免疫反应。硬皮病的自身抗原拓扑异构酶I (Scl-70),RNA聚合酶II和NOR-90可被活性氧以依赖铁或铜的形式独特地裂解,因而金属催化的氧化反应可能使部分自身抗原作为自身免疫反应的目标。凋亡物质的清除延迟可能是由于凋亡率增高或吞噬细胞清除能力的缺陷。
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 楼主| 发表于 2008-12-16 13:54:29 | 显示全部楼层

21-11-第十一节 小 结

自身抗体是特异性疾病过程的早期重要标志。有的自身抗体是通过与靶抗原结合的方式引发疾病;有的则是通过形成免疫复合物间接地启动免疫损伤;也有的抗体虽然不表现为直接或间接的致病性,但对系统性自身免疫病的部分亚型仍具有高度特异性。最后一类自身抗体在诸如狼疮、硬皮病、多发性肌炎和干燥综合征等系统性自身免疫病的血清学诊断中得到广泛应用。研究抗核抗体产生的机制是一个非常有意义和非常活跃的研究领域。通过干预自身抗体产生以起到治疗作用已在小鼠模型上得到初步证实,目前该方法还处于临床试验阶段。    5 a1 c! S/ j8 @" u6 J
                                                                                                                   (Westley H. Reeves, Sonali Narain, JingSong Wang)9 [  e" n7 X7 D4 \
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Prevalence of systemic lupus ery-thematosus in Hawaii: is there a difference between ethnicgroups? Hawaii Med J, 1995. 54(2) :406一409    Mattioli M, Reichlin M. Heterogeneity of RNA proteinantigens reactive with sera of patients with systemic lupus erythe-matosus: description of a cytoplasmic nonribosomal antigen.Arthritis Rheum, 1974. 17:421一429    Mattioli M, Reichlin M. Physical association of two nuclearantigens and mutual occurrence of their antibodies: the relation-ship of the Sm and RNA protein (Mo) systems in SLE sera. JImmunol, 1973. 110:1318一1324    McCarty DJ, Manzi S, Medsger TAJ, Ramsey-Goldman R,LaPorte RE, Kwoh CK. Incidence of systemic lupus erythemato-sus: race and gender differences. Arthritis Rheum, 1995. 38:1260一1270    McCauliffe DP, Wang L, Satoh M, Reeves WH, Small D.Recombinant 52 kD Ro (SSA) ELISA detects autoantibodies inSjogren's syndrome sera that go undetected by conventional sero-logic assays. J Rheumatol, 1997. 24:860一866    McCauliffe DP, Yin H, Wang LX, Lucas L. Autoimmunesera react with multiple epitopes on recombinant 52 and 60 kD Ro(SSA) proteins. J Rheumatol, 1994. 21:1073一1080      McCauliffe DP. Cutaneous diseases in adults associated withanti-Ro/SS-A autoantibody production. Lupus, 1997. 6:158一166    McCauliffe DP. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: a transpla-centally acquired autoimmune disorder. Semin Dermatol, 1995.14:47一53    McNeilage LJ, Youngchaiyud U, Whittingham S. Racialdifferences in antinuclear antibody patterns and clinical manifesta-tions of scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum, 1989. 32:54一60    Medsger TA. Systemic sclerosis(scleroderma ),localizedforms of scleroderma, and calcinosis. In: McCarty DJ, KoopmanWJ,editors. Arthritis and Allied Conditions. Philadelphia: Lea&Febiger, 1993: 1253一1292    Metcalf JV,  Mitchison HC,  Palmer JM,  Jones DE,Bassendine MF, James OFW. Natural history of early primarybiliary cirrhosis. Lancet, 1996. 348:1399一1402    Miller FW, Twitty SA, Biswas T, Plotz PH. Origin andregulation of a disease-specific autoantibody response. Antigenicepitopes, spectrotype stability, and isotype restriction of anti-Jo-1autoantibodies. J Clin Invest, 1990. 85:468一475    Miller FW, Waite KA, Biswas T, Plotz PH. The role of anautoantigen,  histidyl-tRNA synthetase,  in the induction andmaintenance of autoimmunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1990.87:9933一9937    Mimori T, Akizuki M, Yamagata H, Inada S, Yoshida S,Homma M. Characterization of a high molecular weight acidic nu-clear protein recognized by autoantibodies from patients withpolymyositis-scleroderma overlap. J Clin Invest, 1981. 68:611一620    Mimori T, Hardin JA, Steitz JA. Characterization of theDNA-binding protein antigen Ku recognized by autoantibodiesfrom patients with rheumatic disorders. J Biol Chem, 1986.261:2274一2278    Miranda-Carus ME, Askanase AD, Clancy RM, di DonatoF, Chou TM, Libera MR et al. Anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/Laautoantibodies bind the surface of apoptotic fetal cardiocytes andpromote secretion of TNF-alpha by macrophages. J Immunol,2000. 165(9) :5345一5351    Mitchison HC, Lucey MR, Kelly巧,Neuberger JM,Williams R, James OFW. Symptom development and prognosisin primary biliary cirrhosis: a study in two centers. Gastroen-terology, 1990. 99:778一784    Miyachi K, Fritzler MJ, Tan EM. Autoantibody to a nucle-ar antigen in proliferating cells. J Immunol, 1978. 121:2228一2234    Miyachi K, Tan EM. Antibodies reacting with ribosomal ri-bonucleoprotein in connective tissue diseases. Arthritis Rheum,upus erythematosus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1979. 76:5495一5499    Li JM, Horsfall AC, Maini RN. Anti-La(SS-B) but not an-ti-Ro52 (SS-A) antibodies cross-react with laminin- a role inthe pathogenesis of congenital heart block? Clin Exp Immunol,1995. 99:316一324    Litsey SE, Noonan JA, O’Connor WN, Cottrill CM,Mitchell B. Maternal connective tissue disease and congenitalheart block. N Engl J Med, 1985. 312:98一100    Locker JD, Medof ME, Bennett RM, Sukhupunyaraksa S.Characterization of DNA used to assay sera for anti-DNA antibod-ies; determination of the specificities of anti-DNA antibodies inSLE and non-SLE rheumatic disease states. J Immunol, 1977.118:694一701    Love LA, Leff RL, Fraser DD, Targoff IN, Dalakas M,Plotz PH et al. A new approach to the classification of idiopathicinflammatory myopathy: myositis-specific autoantibodies define auseful homogeneous patient group. Medicine, 1991.70:360一374    Masi AT, Rodnan GP, Medsger TA, Altman RD, D' An-gelo WA, Fries JF. Subcommittee for Scleroderma Criteria of theAmerican Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and TherapeuticCriteria Committee: Preliminary criteria for the classification ofsystemic sclerosis (scleroderma).Arthritis Rheum, 1980. 23:581一590    Maskarinec G, Katz AR. Prevalence of systemic lupus ery-thematosus in Hawaii: is there a difference between ethnicgroups? Hawaii Med J, 1995. 54(2) :406一409    Mattioli M, Reichlin M. Heterogeneity of RNA proteinantigens reactive with sera of patients with systemic lupus erythe-matosus: description of a cytoplasmic nonribosomal antigen.Arthritis Rheum, 1974. 17:421一429    Mattioli M, Reichlin M. Physical association of two nuclearantigens and mutual occurrence of their antibodies: the relation-ship of the Sm and RNA protein (Mo) systems in SLE sera. JImmunol, 1973. 110:1318一1324    McCarty DJ, Manzi S, Medsger TAJ, Ramsey-Goldman R,LaPorte RE, Kwoh CK. Incidence of systemic lupus erythemato-sus: race and gender differences. Arthritis Rheum, 1995. 38:1260一1270    McCauliffe DP, Wang L, Satoh M, Reeves WH, Small D.Recombinant 52 kD Ro (SSA) ELISA detects autoantibodies inSjogren's syndrome sera that go undetected by conventional sero-logic assays. J Rheumatol, 1997. 24:860一866    McCauliffe DP, Yin H, Wang LX, Lucas L. Autoimmunesera react with multiple epitopes on recombinant 52 and 60 kD Ro(SSA) proteins. J Rheumatol, 1994. 21:1073一1080      McCauliffe DP. Cutaneous diseases in adults associated withanti-Ro/SS-A autoantibody production. Lupus, 1997. 6:158一166    McCauliffe DP. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: a transpla-centally acquired autoimmune disorder. Semin Dermatol, 1995.14:47一53    McNeilage LJ, Youngchaiyud U, Whittingham S. Racialdifferences in antinuclear antibody patterns and clinical manifesta-tions of scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum, 1989. 32:54一60    Medsger TA. Systemic sclerosis(scleroderma ),localizedforms of scleroderma, and calcinosis. In: McCarty DJ, KoopmanWJ,editors. Arthritis and Allied Conditions. Philadelphia: Lea&Febiger, 1993: 1253一1292    Metcalf JV,  Mitchison HC,  Palmer JM,  Jones DE,Bassendine MF, James OFW. Natural history of early primarybiliary cirrhosis. Lancet, 1996. 348:1399一1402    Miller FW, Twitty SA, Biswas T, Plotz PH. Origin andregulation of a disease-specific autoantibody response. Antigenicepitopes, spectrotype stability, and isotype restriction of anti-Jo-1autoantibodies. J Clin Invest, 1990. 85:468一475    Miller FW, Waite KA, Biswas T, Plotz PH. The role of anautoantigen,  histidyl-tRNA synthetase,  in the induction andmaintenance of autoimmunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1990.87:9933一9937    Mimori T, Akizuki M, Yamagata H, Inada S, Yoshida S,Homma M. Characterization of a high molecular weight acidic nu-clear protein recognized by autoantibodies from patients withpolymyositis-scleroderma overlap. J Clin Invest, 1981. 68:611一620    Mimori T, Hardin JA, Steitz JA. Characterization of theDNA-binding protein antigen Ku recognized by autoantibodiesfrom patients with rheumatic disorders. J Biol Chem, 1986.261:2274一2278    Miranda-Carus ME, Askanase AD, Clancy RM, di DonatoF, Chou TM, Libera MR et al. Anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/Laautoantibodies bind the surface of apoptotic fetal cardiocytes andpromote secretion of TNF-alpha by macrophages. J Immunol,2000. 165(9) :5345一5351    Mitchison HC, Lucey MR, Kelly巧,Neuberger JM,Williams R, James OFW. Symptom development and prognosisin primary biliary cirrhosis: a study in two centers. Gastroen-terology, 1990. 99:778一784    Miyachi K, Fritzler MJ, Tan EM. Autoantibody to a nucle-ar antigen in proliferating cells. J Immunol, 1978. 121:2228一2ctive with retroviral p30gag antigen. Cell, 1987. 51:211一220    Raz E, Brezis M, Rosenmann E, Eilat D. Anti-DNA anti-bodies bind directly to renal antigens and induce kidney dysfunc-tion in the isolated perfused rat kidney. J Immunol, 1989. 142:3076一3082    Reeves WH, Chaudhary N, Salerno A, Blobel G. Lamin Bautoantibodies in sera of certain patients with systemic lupus ery-thematosus. J Exp Med, 1987. 165:750一762    Reeves WH, Fisher DE, Lahita RG, Kunkel HG. Autoim-mune sera reactive with Sm antigen contain high levels of RNP-like antibodies. J Clin Invest, 1985. 75:580一587    Reeves WH, Nigam SK,Blobel G. Human autoantibodiesreactive with the signal recognition particle. Proc Natl Acad SciUSA, 1986. 83:9507一9511    Reeves WH, Satoh M, McCauliffe DP. Autoantibody test-ing by non-FITC methods. In: Rose NR, Hamilton RG, DetrickB, editors. Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology. Washington, DC二American Society of Microbiology Press, 2002: 933一950    Reeves WH, Satoh M. Autoantibodies in systemic lupuserythematosus. In: Koopman WJ, editor. Arthritis and AlliedConditions. A Textbook of Rheumatology. Philadelphia: Lippin-cott Williams&Wilkins, 2001:1480一1502    Reeves WH, Wang J, Ajmani AK, Stojanov L, Satoh M.The Ku Autoantigen. In: Zanetti M, Capra JD, editors. TheAntibodies. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997:33一84    Reeves WH. Use of monoclonal antibodies for the character-ization of novel DNA-binding proteins recognized by human au-toimmune sera. J Exp Med, 1985. 161:18一39    Reichlin M, Brucato A, Frank MB, Maddison PJ, McCub-bin VR, Wolfson-Reichlin M et al. Concentration of autoantibod-ies to native 60-kd Ro/SS-A and denatured 52-kd Ro/SS-A ineluates from the heart of a child who died with congenital com-plete heart block. Arthritis Rheum, 1994. 3700:1698一1703    Reimer G, Rose KM, Scheer U, Tan EM. Autoantibody toRNA polymerase I in scleroderma sera. J Clin Invest, 1987. 79:65一72    Reimer G, Steen VD, Penning CA, Medsger TA, TanEM. Correlates between autoantibodies to nucleolar antigens andclinical features in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma).Arthritis Rheum, 1988. 31:525一532    Reveille JD, Durban E, Goldstein R, Moreda R, ArnettFC. Racial differences in the frequencies of scleroderma-relatedautoantibodies. Arthritis Rheum, 1992. 35:216一218    RinkeJ, Steitz JA. Precursor molecules of both human 5Sribosomal RNA and transfer RNAs are bound by a cellular proteinreactive with anti-La lupus antibodies. Cell, 1982. 29:149一159    Robinson CP, Brayer J, Yamachika S, Esch TR, Peck AB,Stewart CA et al. Transfer of human serum IgG to nonobese dia-betic Igmu null mice reveals a role for autoantibodies in the loss ofsecretory function of exocrine tissues in Sjogren 's syndrome. ProcNatl Acad Sci USA, 1998. 95(13):7538一7543    Rosenberg AM, Semchuk KM, McDuffie HH, LedinghamDL, Cordeiro DM, Cessna习 et al. Prevalence of antinuclear an-tibodies in a rural population. J Toxicol Environ Health A, 1999.57(4):225一236    Rothfield NF, Stollar BD. The relation of immunoglobulinclass, pattern of anti-nuclear antibody, and complement-fixingantibodies to DNA in sera from patients with systemic lupus ery-thematosus. J Clin Invest, 1967. 46:1785一1794      Rothfield NF. Autoantibodies in scleroderma. Rheum DisClin North Am, 1992. 18:483一498      Rothfield NF. Autoantibodies to scleroderma-associated anti-gens. Invan Venrooij WJ, Maini RN, editors. Manual of Bio-logical Markers of Disease. Dordrecht Kluwer Academic Pub-lishers, 1996: 1一7    Rozman B, Boric B, Kos-Golja M, Plesivcnik-Novljan M,Kveder T. Immunoserological aspects of idiopathic inflammatorymuscle disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr, 2000. 112 (15一16):722一727    Rubin RL, Burlingame RW, Arnott JE, Totoritis MC, Mc-Nally EM, Johnson AD.  IgG but not other classes of anti-[ (H2A-H2B)-DNA] is an early sign of procainamide-induced lu-pus. J Immunol, 1995. 154:2483一2493    Rubin RL. Hsstone (1-12A-H2B)-DNA autoantibodies. In Peter JB, Shoenfeld Y, editors. Autoantibodies. Amsterdam:Elsevier Science, 1996: 364一372    Rumore PM, Steinman CR. Endogenous circulating DNA insystemic lupus erythematosus: occurrence as multimeric complex-es bound to histone. J Clin Invest, 1990. 86:69一74    Sabbaga J, Line SRP, Potocnjak P, Madaio MP. A murinenephritogenic monoclonal anti-DNA autoantibody binds directly tomouse laminin, the major non-collagenous protein component ofthe glomerular basement membrane. Eur J Immunol, 1989. 19:137一143    Salmon JE, Millard S, Schachter LA, Arnett FC GinzlerEM, Gourley MF et al. Fc gamma RIIA alleles are heritable riskfactors for lupus nephritis in African Americans. J Clin Invest,1996. 97:1348一1354    Satoh M, Ajmani AK, Ogasawara T, Langdon JJ, HirakataM, Wang J et al. Autoantibodies to RNA polymerase II are com-mon in systemic lupus erythematosus and overlap syndrome. Spe-cific recognition of the phosphorylated (110) form by a subset of234    Miyachi K, Tan EM. Antibodies reacting with ribosomal ri-bonucleoprotein in connective tissue diseases. Arthritis Rheum,ctive with retroviral p30gag antigen. Cell, 1987. 51:211一220    Raz E, Brezis M, Rosenmann E, Eilat D. Anti-DNA anti-bodies bind directly to renal antigens and induce kidney dysfunc-tion in the isolated perfused rat kidney. J Immunol, 1989. 142:3076一3082    Reeves WH, Chaudhary N, Salerno A, Blobel G. Lamin Bautoantibodies in sera of certain patients with systemic lupus ery-thematosus. J Exp Med, 1987. 165:750一762    Reeves WH, Fisher DE, Lahita RG, Kunkel HG. Autoim-mune sera reactive with Sm antigen contain high levels of RNP-like antibodies. J Clin Invest, 1985. 75:580一587    Reeves WH, Nigam SK,Blobel G. Human autoantibodiesreactive with the signal recognition particle. Proc Natl Acad SciUSA, 1986. 83:9507一9511    Reeves WH, Satoh M, McCauliffe DP. Autoantibody test-ing by non-FITC methods. In: Rose NR, Hamilton RG, DetrickB, editors. Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology. Washington, DC二American Society of Microbiology Press, 2002: 933一950    Reeves WH, Satoh M. Autoantibodies in systemic lupuserythematosus. In: Koopman WJ, editor. Arthritis and AlliedConditions. A Textbook of Rheumatology. Philadelphia: Lippin-cott Williams&Wilkins, 2001:1480一1502    Reeves WH, Wang J, Ajmani AK, Stojanov L, Satoh M.The Ku Autoantigen. In: Zanetti M, Capra JD, editors. TheAntibodies. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997:33一84    Reeves WH. Use of monoclonal antibodies for the character-ization of novel DNA-binding proteins recognized by human au-toimmune sera. J Exp Med, 1985. 161:18一39    Reichlin M, Brucato A, Frank MB, Maddison PJ, McCub-bin VR, Wolfson-Reichlin M et al. Concentration of autoantibod-ies to native 60-kd Ro/SS-A and denatured 52-kd Ro/SS-A ineluates from the heart of a child who died with congenital com-plete heart block. Arthritis Rheum, 1994. 3700:1698一1703    Reimer G, Rose KM, Scheer U, Tan EM. Autoantibody toRNA polymerase I in scleroderma sera. J Clin Invest, 1987. 79:65一72    Reimer G, Steen VD, Penning CA, Medsger TA, TanEM. 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